Cooking in the oven: the subtleties that you need to know
How to bake dishes in the oven correctly, so that they turn out to be juicy and fragrant, what method of cooking to choose, what to bake and some other subtleties of the process.
Dishes cooked with the help of an oven are definitely more beneficial for a person. They are prepared using the minimum amount of oil in their own juice.
Almost any dish that you are accustomed to cook on the hob can be cooked in the oven at least as tasty. The oven is useful even when you do not want to completely abandon the traditional frying. Add benefits to dishes and reduce harm by combining two types of cooking.
Often, especially in restaurants, cooks first fry the product until golden brown, and then bring it to readiness in the oven. Each oven is individual and has a number of features, which can be read in the instructions for it, but there are several general secrets that will suit the owners of all ovens.
Choose a level
In order for the dish not to burn, it remains juicy and fragrant and at the same time fully cooked, it is important to choose the right level of cooking in the oven. The safe option is to choose the middle level, it is on it that the dish will not burn, it will cook evenly. If the ruddy crust is important, then the almost finished dish can be moved to a higher level for a short time. The last trend is to prepare dishes at low temperatures for several hours. It is believed that this method allows you to maintain the correct texture of products, taste and aroma. This way you can cook in the oven at the lower level, but in the mode in which the lower heating is not strong.
Some products are harder to browse below, so they are best cooked at a lower level with strong heating of the lower ten. For example, cooks are recommended to cook pizza. So it does not burn on top and will be crisp on the bottom. We advise you not to move the baking sheet close to the back wall, this prevents air circulation and does not allow the dish to be baked evenly.
In modern ovens there are many modes that help even the most difficult multi-stage dish to cook with maximum comfort.For example, the simultaneous use of top and bottom heating is considered a traditional baking format and you can cook almost any dish on it. It provides even heat distribution and natural convection. This mode is quite slow, while the lower ten in almost all ovens works more powerfully, which means that the dish can be prepared not quite evenly. Traditionally, cookies, biscuits, bread, lasagna, stuffed vegetables, roasts, poultry, beef, fish and fish casseroles are cooked in this mode.
Simultaneous intensive lower heating and standard upper heating are used when you need to quickly fry the dish from the bottom or to achieve a golden crust. This mode is ideal for roasting in pots and small forms. If you use dishes that do not conduct heat well, such as glass, aluminum, then this mode is ideal.
The mode of simultaneous lower, upper heating and the fan helps to evenly affect the products and creates an even microclimate in the furnace. In this mode, the heating of dishes is more intense due to the air masses and products from all sides quickly browned.This mode is suitable for large baking trays, large quantities of food in the dish and large whole pieces. For example, for shank, rolls, roasts, casseroles, whole poultry, pork. It can be cooked when even cooking is needed inside and outside. In this mode, we do not recommend experimenting with omelets and meringues. These dishes do not like convection.
In the mode of only lower heating, we advise you to dry the lower part of the pies with wet fillings, additionally brown the pizza, preserve. In this mode, you often have to rearrange the dish to a level higher or lower, to follow browning. We recommend the lower heating mode and the fan to complete the baking of open pies, dishes in forms with low sides, for bad rising baking. In this mode, the dishes are obtained with a crust below and juicy inside.
Top heating mode with a fan is useful for dishes where you need even cooking and a baked crust. It is very convenient to bake food on it in forms. Suitable for casseroles, souffles, lasagna, juliens. We recommend using the grill mode for cooking steaks, chops, kupat, rolls, fish fillets, vegetables, toast, bacon, kebabs, sausages, pork ribs, dishes in various sizes of forms.It can be used as the main cooking mode or at the final stage to achieve a recognizable appearance. This mode can be called and grill, and infranagrev, and barbecue - depending on the model and manufacturer.
In what we bake
Today, a huge amount of dishes for baking. The most environmentally friendly are considered to be ceramic forms, glass, cast iron. It is very convenient to bake in baking trays, which come complete with an oven. We recommend for juicy, wet dishes to choose a baking tray with high sides, and for dry dishes - flat. It is convenient to cook in ceramic pots and shapes, but we advise you to put them in the oven before heating, this will save the dishes from cracking. From a sharp temperature drop the pot can even burst. In a conventional cast iron skillet, we recommend making casseroles from various products; it is in this dish that they are baked faster and more evenly. Silicone molds are convenient for baking, bread, cheesecakes. In them, nothing burns even without lubrication, which allows you to prepare dietetic baking.
Cooking in foil, sleeve
In foil, you can bake any food, except fruits, soft vegetables, cereals, mushrooms.They are too boiled down and have lost their taste. For the rest of the dishes, the foil perfectly preserves the juice and prevents the dishes from drying out from high temperatures. An important rule is that the shiny side of the foil should always be turned towards the dish, and the matte one should be facing out. This will keep the cooking temperature for longer. When wrapping meat or fish, it is important to ensure that the protruding bones or sharp corners of the product do not break through the foil during cooking, otherwise the dish will lose its valuable juice. For the same, we advise you to always firmly fasten the edges of the foil.
On average, food under the foil is cooked at 200 degrees. Baking time depends on the size of the product. For example, meat is prepared from 40 minutes to 2 hours. Fish - from 20 minutes to 45 minutes. Vegetables - about half an hour. Bird - from half an hour to 3 hours. In order to get a crisp crust, at the very end of cooking, the foil is unrolled and the dish is cooked in a mode of intensive top heating to a blush. Try to prevent strong acids, such as wine and marinades, from falling on the foil. Foil can be used even at very high temperature conditions, it can withstand up to 600 degrees.
Plastic bags and sleeves of heat-resistant film allow baking in modes up to 230 degrees in sealed conditions. They can bake meat and potatoes, fish and vegetables at the same time. The side dish is soaked with the aroma and taste of meat or fish, the juices are mixed, and the dish with this cooking method turns out very tasty. It is this method that allows to significantly save the cooking time. For example, if a medium sized turkey is cooked under a foil for about two hours, then it takes about an hour in the sleeve. But the sleeve and the packages it is important to choose high-quality, food, designed specifically for baking, then they are absolutely harmless. We recommend that you be very careful when you unfold the dish and put it in a portion plate. Juice stands out a lot!
We advise you to make a few punctures in the upper part of the sleeve or package with a fork before cooking. In this way, hot air can go out and the sleeve will not burst. When baking in an artificial casing there are several tricks. A large piece of meat does not need to be salted, so it will turn out more tender and melting in the mouth. When baking a bird, it is better to use dry spices, raw ones can deteriorate the taste.When baking the minced meat, it is salted and pepper in advance and added a little flour, which absorbs excess salt and moisture. Fish are advised to salt several times more than usual, about a tablespoon of salt per kilogram. Baked vegetables are advised not to pickle or put seasonings. This can be done already in ready-made form, adding them to taste together with butter, sour cream and sauce.
If you are cooking a dish without an artificial casing, then during the cooking process it is important to constantly water the dish with the appearing own juice. Especially if you are cooking large pieces of fish or meat. This method provides a brighter crisp, but can also threaten with a drier and burnt result. The traditional way of baking involves a constant stay in the kitchen. We do not recommend baking dishes made from small pieces of meat, fish and vegetables. They can get too dry.
Many do not know that you can cook in the oven porridge and soups. We recommend at least once to try to do it. The soup is cooked in a ceramic or refractory dish under the lid for about 1.5 hours at 200 degrees, then it can be worn with the oven off until the oven cools or at a very low temperature for about an hour.This soup turns out very tasty, with the effect of languor in a traditional Russian oven. On the same technology cook porridge. In milk or water, it is cooked for about 1.5 hours at 180 degrees and languishes for about another 40 minutes. This is delicious!
Cooking in a water bath
Another way - roasting in a water bath. It is used when you need to cook dishes from "naughty" products. For example, souffles, cheesecakes, pates, creams, some casseroles are recommended to cook this way. For a water bath, a volumetric shape is needed, into which hot water is poured and the mold is already put into it with a cooking dish. The water level should reach the middle of the main form or slightly higher. Thus, the water when heated does not fall into the dish. Cooked in a water bath at 180 degrees. This method allows the dish to warm up evenly and not to burn. Even the most tender cheesecake with such baking will be airy and elastic at the same time.
Stew in the oven
You can extinguish not only on the burner, but also in the oven. You can extinguish as pre-fried meat, fish, vegetables, and fresh. We advise you to add liquid in the form at the rate of two thirds of the total volume of products.The minimum amount of liquid is one third, but it must be ensured that it does not boil off. You can stew in water, kefir, milk, whey, broth, depending on the selected recipe.
- Be sure to preheat the oven in advance. We recommend heating the gas cabinet 10 minutes before cooking, and the electric one - for 20. Only very fat meat is put in a cold oven.
- In order for the vegetables not to be boiled down and turned into cotton, we advise you to turn off the oven until you are completely ready and leave the vegetables to reach the cooling cabinet.
- Do not open the lid during cooking. This disturbs the microclimate and the circulation of air currents. Sometimes it is enough to look through the glass by turning on the backlight function. This rule is especially important when preparing baking and baking.
- Always observe the temperature specified in the recipe. In any case, as long as you do not go into the category of professional cooking enthusiasts.
- If you have a very old stove without a thermometer, then you can determine degrees using a simple sheet of paper. For 30 seconds at 100-120 degrees the sheet turns slightly yellow, at 190-210 degrees the paper is yellow-brown, the sheet starts to burn at 220 degrees.
- Water and salt are saved from burning.Delicate foods are best cooked with the help of a water bath. To prevent sticking, you can use a kilogram of coarse salt scattered on the bottom tray.
- We advise you to remember that puff pastry is baked at high temperature, rich or biscuits - at medium, protein dough - at low.
Solving typical problems
When cooking roasts, the sauce often burns. This means that next time it is better to use a smaller form and add liquid to the cooking process. To prevent dishes from getting dry, we recommend using an artificial casing or cooking less in time at a higher temperature. When baking meat with a piece, we advise you to take a piece of at least a kilogram, then it will not dry out. White meat is baked at a moderate constant temperature of 150-175 ° C, red - at 200-250 ° C.
Red meat is preferably an hour before cooking to get out of the refrigerator, then it will remain soft. Meat can fry badly due to the fact that you salt it before cooking. Salt it is recommended in the middle of the process. Small fish is cooked at constant heat.Fish of medium size - first at high, then gradually reduce it. Large - with constant moderate heat.
If there are fewer problems with cooking with the second dishes, then baking, biscuits and other pastries can create a number of difficulties. If you constantly drop cakes and get flat, we advise you to observe the kneading time specified in the recipe, take less liquid and bake at a temperature 10 degrees lower than usual. If the cake does not rise at the edges, then you should not grease the sides of the form with fat. When you burn the top of the pie, then move it to a level lower, but bake longer.
If the bottom of the cake remains too light, then choose the next dark dish, put it on a low level and turn on the optional lower heating mode. Baking can blush unevenly if the shape is incorrect. Bright and brilliant shape - the wrong decision. In order for the cake not to turn out too dry, it is necessary to pierce small holes in it with a stick, pour a drop of fruit juice and syrup into them and shorten the baking time.
If the outside of the bakery looks ready, and inside - the damp, then we recommend using a mode with a lower temperature and lengthen the cooking time.For juicy fillings, it is better to bake the cake or foundation in advance, and then put the filling, be sure to sprinkle the cake with breadcrumbs or crushed almonds.
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