How to make a bath in the country with their own hands
Choosing a place to build a bath
Before the start of construction work it is necessary to determine the location of the future bath. It is best to build it on an open, level surface and not too close to open water to avoid flooding during floods. It is possible to attach a bath to the house or arrange it separately, for example, in the back part of the villa. It should follow the following recommendations:
- In the bath it is necessary to carry out effective ventilation and discharge drains.
- There should not be a road near the building.
- It is optimal to have a bath on the south side of the site. This will create a comfortable environment for recreation and make the building less blown by the wind.
- The easiest way to install a bath remotely from home. Otherwise, you will need to carefully consider all fire safety requirements.
- It is not recommended to conduct construction close to the fence separating your site from the neighboring one.Also, do not make the windows of the bath overlooking the other suburban area, so as not to bring discomfort to the neighbors.
- The distance from the bath to the nearest well or well should be at least 20 m.
Preparation for the construction of baths
Any construction activities require preliminary preparation of the project construction. Determine the optimal size of the bath. It is best to take at least five square meters per person from the total area of the building. For example, in the construction of buildings for five people, its area should be at least 25 square meters. A typical Russian bath project will include a steam room or sauna, a waiting room, a washing room and a relaxation room. Consider in advance how the premises will be located, and what will be their dimensions.
For accurate calculations of the size of the building, prepare the following drawings:
- general drawing;
- drawing of individual rooms;
- roof drawing;
- foundation pattern;
- floor and ceiling drawings;
- mounting scheme timber;
- scheme of construction and installation of the bath furnace.
With certain skills, these drawings can be made independently. Otherwise, use the drawings,submitted online. Most of the projects are designed according to similar principles, so they are quite suitable for use. If you have additional financial resources, and you want to create a completely unique project, you can contact the engineers, ordering from them an individual drawing.
Required materials and tools
It is very important to prepare building materials for a bath in a certain amount. You will need:
- timber with a section of 150 to 150 mm;
- four-meter edged boards for the floor (15 to 5 cm);
- board-lining for the ceiling, a width of 10 cm and a height of 2 cm;
- finishing materials (you can use clapboard);
- vapor barrier material (vapor barrier film);
- waterproofing materials (plastic film or penofol);
- insulation for the ceiling (mineral wool);
- bulk materials for the foundation (sand, cement and crushed stone);
- material for finishing the roof (at personal discretion, but you can choose the same as in other buildings on the site);
- insulation for interventure space (jute, tow or moss).
It is important to take care of such material as sheet asbestos.It is used to isolate the wooden elements of the building in order to protect it from high temperatures. Sheets of insulation are fixed on the wall to which the bathing stove adjoins. In addition, it is necessary to isolate the wooden elements that will be located close to the chimney.
Provide additional elements and accessories for construction and decoration, including door handles and hinges, window latches, electrical appliances. In addition, you will need certain tools and equipment, including an electric drill and jigsaw, a Bulgarian, a set of hammers, nails and screws. Be sure to clear a place for construction and make sure that there are no open sources of fire nearby. Now you can start the main work.
It is best to start the construction of the bath in the spring, since after the completion of all the work it will be necessary to withstand a semi-annual wintering. This is a necessary time for drying of building materials and shrinkage of the foundation. In addition, the construction site must be pre-cleared from a variety of debris, large roots and shrubs, so that nothing prevents the construction of the foundation.
The best basement option for log baths is the column support structure. Prepare pits for installing supports in the right quantity. At the corners of the building, around the perimeter and in places where the walls are mated, be sure to install pillars. When calculating the step length, it is necessary to take into account the type of soil on the site and the expected load on the future support structure. The best depth of the pits is 100-150 cm, however, other values can be taken taking into account the depth of soil freezing.
Fill the bottom of each pit with a layer of sand and crushed stone mixture (10-15 cm). Install an asbestos-cement pipe vertically in each of them. Place reinforcing rods in the pipes and fill all reinforcement with concrete. The free space around the supporting structures must also be filled with concrete. Leave the foundation to dry for a few days, after which make an additional waterproofing using the harvested materials.
Installation of walls and roof
For the construction of walls used timber with a cross section of 150 to 150 mm. Lay the first crown on the waterproofed foundation, aligning it in all respects.Laying bars performed by the method of "in the paw." Continue building walls of the required height, leaving openings for future doors and double-glazed windows. The crowns are fastened together with the help of wooden pins. Each of the crowns must be insulated with jute or other suitable material.
Put the walls under the roof, fixing the rafters, taking into account the characteristics of the selected roof. If you plan to install a shed roof, rafters need to be fixed with two external or one external and one internal supports. With a gable system, the lower ends of the rafters must firmly rest against the walls, and the upper ends must be connected to each other to create a roofing ridge.
Attach the rafters to the last crown using brackets. Attach to the rafters crate. Lay the heat, steam and waterproofing materials. Remember that the warming of the bath is an important stage of construction, on which the quality and internal comfort of the future construction will depend. Complete the roofing installation by checking all joints for strength.
Begin to arrange the necessary communications.The sewage system should already be connected to the building. For this, a drainage well or pit is connected near the bath, which is connected to the bath with an inclined pipe. If the sewer is complete, start laying the floor, making it from wood or concrete. The second option also requires facing tiles, which will give it durability.
At arrangement of a wooden floor the proceeding covering is created. To do this, set the logs, which nailed the floor boards. Small gaps should be left between them. It is also better to create a hatch for drainage and cover up with a small grill. The water drainage floor should be slightly angled. As a result, the water will drain into the hatch and then go down the pipe to the pit or well. Insulate the walls and ceiling of the bath using suitable materials. Install the doors and windows.
The next step is to bring water and electricity to the bath, as well as to install the necessary electrical appliances. The shelves may be arranged in any suitable order. They are created as follows: first, the installation of a support frame made of durable timber is carried out, and then boards are nailed to the supports.
The choice of oven also depends on personal discretionBoth traditional heaters and more modern metal aggregates or electric heaters are equally well suited for a log sauna. Do not forget about such small but important details as bath accessories - brooms, pots and mugs, buckets, wooden lattices and, of course, a table with chairs for a rest room. It remains to sustain a six-month "wintering", and the building will be completely ready for operation.
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