Construction of the basement

Construction of strip foundation
Anyone starts with a foundation. The types and size of the foundation depend on the building that will be built on it. The higher the weight of the building, the foundation must be solid. For the construction of a wooden house or a house of foam concrete blocks, the ribbon foundation is perfect. The main advantage of the ribbon foundation is that it can be built with your own hands without the use of heavy construction equipment. Conditionally, the construction of a strip foundation can be divided into several basic stages.
Construction of strip foundations


To simplify the marking process, the site selected for building the house should be leveled, the shrubs and tall grass should be cut.Then, at the location of one of the walls of the building, mark the edges of the foundation with hammered pegs, conventionally naming them A and B. The main task of the marking is to give the contours of the building regular shapes with right angles. For this, there are special geodetic devices. But you can do without them. For this we have to remember the school geometry course. From point A, perpendicular to straight line AB, a distance equal to the edges of the basement of the perpendicular wall recedes. We denote this point by the letter B. Now we have a right triangle, the paths A-B and A-B. Knowing the size of the legs, you can calculate the length of the hypotenuse B-B and compare it with what happened on the ground. If necessary, move the peg to the desired point. Similarly, the location of the fourth corner of the foundation is determined. Laser distance measuring is best for distance measurements.

Trench for foundation.

 Construction of strip foundations
The trench for the foundation is dug strictly according to the marking. The trench width is 40-50 cm, but the depth should be determined by the depth of soil freezing. It is necessary to dig 20 cm below the depth of frost penetration.Then no movement of the ground and its swelling during freezing will not be terrible for the foundation. Before pouring the foundation, a sand cushion with a height of 20 cm is poured into the bottom of the trench and it is tamped tightly. To save, a pile-and-tape method is sometimes used. At the corners of the basement and along the perimeter, every 1.5 meter, the reinforced piles are poured to the depth of frost penetration. The armature of them should stick up to the height of the strip foundation. This is necessary for a strong bond of the main strip foundation and the piles themselves. At the same time, the foundation tape may be shallow-depth.


 Construction of strip foundations
Before pouring the foundation, formwork should be erected, which will give the foundation the necessary shape. Formwork can be made of 40-50 mm thick boards. Also suitable sheets of chipboard or sheet slate. The upper edges of the entire formwork must be an ideal horizontal surface. If you assemble the formwork of the boards, then its inner edges should be covered with foil to prevent cement from flowing out and facilitate its subsequent disassembly.To under the weight of the cement mortar formwork is not bursting, spacers are installed on the outside of the structure. For ventilation of the internal volume of the foundation, round holes are cut in the formwork on both sides, where plastic pipes are inserted.


 Construction of the belt foundation
To impart a tensile strength to the foundation, the inner volume of the formwork is filled with a reinforcing frame made of iron reinforcement with a section of 8-10 mm. Between each other the armature is connected with a special soft metal wire.  Construction of strip foundations


For pouring, use concrete M300. The solution can be bought ready, but for this you need to accurately calculate the volume of the foundation. With this option, there is one significant disadvantage. The entire solution should be worked out in 1-2 hours, otherwise it will become unusable. You can pour the foundation yourself. To do this, you need sand, gravel and cement. Mixing ratios are usually indicated on bags of cement. A small electric concrete mixer will speed up the process of solution preparation.It should be poured exactly along the upper edges of the formwork.


After pouring the foundation in rainy weather should be covered with foil and left to dry. If the weather is hot, the foundation must be watered. After drying, you can remove the formwork and start building a house.

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